Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

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PBFE
Probability Based Fingerprint Evidence.

PCAST Report
On September 20, 2016, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and 
Technology (PCAST), which gives recommendations to the President of the US, 
released a report titled, ‘Forensic Science in Criminal Courts: Ensuring 
Scientific Validity of Feature-Comparison Methods’. The report evaluated DNA, 
Bitemarks, Latent Fingerprints, Firearms, Tool Marks, Footwear, and Hair 
analysis and found many disciplines lack scientific validity. The report 
suggested using a linear ACE process, documenting what is seen during analysis 
and comparison, and improving the OSAC’s. The report also indicated that many of 
the pattern evidence disciplines did not have supporting scientific validity.

PDMAC
Para-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde. Reagent that reacts with urea, 
amines and their salts to develop friction ridge detail with fluorescent 
properties when exposed to selected wavelengths of light.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

PZ Code
See Palmar Exemplar & Latent Zone Codes.

Palm (Palmar Area)
The friction ridge skin area on the side and underside of the hand.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Concerning the palm of the hand.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Palm Print (or Palmprint)
An impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the palmar surface of 
the hand.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Palm Print Court Cases
See State vs Kuhl (1918).
See Betts Case (1917).

Palmar Exemplar & Latent Zone Codes (PZ Codes)
An alpha-numeric system developed in 2003 by Craig Coppock as a communication tool 
to refer to specific areas of the fingers and palms.  In this system each hand is 
divided into 28 regions and given an alpha-numeric identifier.  This system 
offers a quick and efficient means of distinguishing a particular area in the hand 
to those familiar and unfamiliar with scientific terminology.

Palmar Zone
The interdigital area of the palm.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Panacryl Brilliant Flavone 10GFF
See Basic Yellow 40.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Papillae (Papilla)
Peg-like structures of the dermis.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

A small nipple-like protuberance or elevation.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press 

Papillary Layer
One of the two layers of the dermis.  

The superficial layer of the dermis raised into papillae that fit 
into corresponding depressions on the inner surface of the epidermis. 
Published under license with Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. © 1997-2000
http://www.fasthealth.com/dictionary/p/papillary_layer.php

Papillary Pegs
See Dermal Papillae. 

Papillary Ridges
Orderly rows of eccrine glands positioned along the path of the 
friction ridge.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

The term 'papillary ridge' can be used to describe many different areas 
in the skin.  It is not important to discern whether one is right or wrong, 
just to understand the area that is being referred to.  How this term is 
used will also effect how the terms 'primary ridges' and 'secondary ridges' 
are used.
1) From Hale:  Ridges on the bottom of the epidermis corresponding to the 
surface friction ridges and surface furrows. They are the root system of 
the surface ridges and furrows.  The papillary ridges that correspond to 
the friction ridges are referred to as primary ridges and the papillary 
ridges that correspond to the surface furrows are referred to as secondary 
ridges.  Aka Epidermal Ridges.
2) Papillary ridges may refer to the ridges in the papillary layer of the 
dermis that connect to the bottom ridges of the epidermis.  In this 
description, the connecting ridges of the epidermis are referred to grooves 
(primary and secondary).  This definition is referred to in "Bloom and 
Fawcett's Concise Histology".  Aka Dermal Ridges.
3)In many books and articles papillary ridges refer to friction ridges.

Parke, Edward
Son of fingerprint pioneer Capt. James H. Parke.  Edward Parke seems to have 
studied fingerprints simultaneously with his father.  He is sometimes credited 
with developing the 8 x 8 standard fingerprint card in 1913 that his father 
initially suggested.  But it appears that Michael P. Evans used an 8 x 8 
fingerprint card as early as 1905.  Like his father, Edward Parke also worked 
for the New York State Prison Department and in 1913 was transferred to work 
with the fingerprints his father had started accumulating years earlier.   

Parke, Capt. James H. (1848-?)
Capt. James H. Parke was the bookkeeper at the headquarters of the New York 
State Department of Prisons at Albany.  He was given the responsibility of 
setting up a fingerprint file for the prison department.  In 1903, he began 
fingerprinting the inmates and used his own classification system to file his 
cards.  His classification system (The American System of Fingerprint 
Classification) was a modified version of the English Henry Classification 
System.  Parke presented his system at the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis 
along side Ferrier who presented the Henry System.  Although Parke influenced 
other organizations to use fingerprints as their main form of identification, 
the New York prison system continued to use the Bertillon Identification 
method as their primary system for many years.  Parke's system was primarily 
used by New England states.  Parke's use of fingerprints was the first use for 
criminal identification in the United States and considered the third use of 
fingerprints in the United States overall (after Thompson and DeForest).  
Parke is also credited as being the first American fingerprint instructor, 1904.  

Patent Print
Friction ridge impression of unknown origin, visible without development.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

A friction ridge impression that can be visualized without processing. This 
may be deposited intentionally or unintentionally.

Pathology
The study of causes, nature, and effects of diseases, trauma, and other 
abnormalities.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Pattern Classification
Sub-division of pattern type, defined by classification systems such as Henry or 
National Crime Information Center (NCIC) classifications.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Pattern Formations
Friction ridge skin arrangements formed as early as the third month 
of gestation.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Pattern Type
Fundamental pattern of the ridge flow: arch, loop, whorl. Arches are subdivided into 
plain and tented arches; loops are subdivided into radial and ulnar loops; whorls are 
subdivided into plain whorls, double loops, pocket loops, and accidental whorls.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Patterson, Terry L.
See State of Massachusetts v. Patterson, officially called Commonwealth 
(of Massachusetts) v. Terry L. Patterson.

Peer Review
Peer Review is the process that scientific knowledge undergoes prior to 
publication in a scientific journal.  It involves reviewing the theoretical 
correctness behind the information as well as the reliability of the conclusions 
given.

Specific scientific conclusions can also undergo this type of complete review 
to ensure quality results.  Reviewing the process, as well as replicating the 
result, ensures that judgments are not based on flawed reasoning and leads to 
the most accurate result.  For specific scientific conclusions, this process is 
referred to as ‘scientific scrutiny’ or ‘scientific review’ or a ‘technical review’.

A review to verify that conclusions are supported by suitable data, proper procedures, 
valid reasoning, and appropriate documentation.

Peer Review Journal
A peer-reviewed journal is an academic periodical that has some sort of peer 
review process to ensure its accuracy. This often involves having several 
people read the article without knowledge of its author before accepting it, 
as well as a rigorous editing and fact-checking process. Peer-reviewed journals 
are generally considered the most reliable academic sources.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-reviewed_journal 10-14-2005

Pelmatoscopy
The science which studies the friction ridges of the soles.  

Pen Pack
Short for Penitentiary Packet, a pen pack is the complete incarceration record 
supplied by the State Department of Corrections.  It includes the conviction 
history of an inmate’s term of incarceration and each term of confinement may 
include a fingerprint record.

Penrose, LS (Lionel Sharples) (1898-1972)
A British geneticist who studied the genetic aspect of fingerprints and an early 
form of dermatoglyphics.  He studied the relationship between fingerprints and 
Down's Syndrome as well as their relationship to congenital mental defects.  
He wrote in "The Lancet" in 1931.

Pentadactylous
Having five fingers on each limb.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Pentadactyly
The occurrence of five fingers or toes on a hand or foot.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

People v. Crispi (New York, 1911)
Charles Crispi, aka Cesare J. Cella, was the defendant in this case, which 
is noted as being the first case that fingerprint evidence was the sole 
evidence.  Fingerprint expert Joseph Faurot testified to the identification 
process.  After hearing Faurot's testimony, Crispi pled guilty.  The judge 
asked Crispi for a full confession, ensuring him that no additional charges 
would be filed.  The judge wanted to ensure that the scientific evidence 
that was testified to was indeed correct.

People v. Jennings (Illinois, 1910)
See Jennings.  See Jennings, Thomas.

People v. Kelly (California, 1976)
The court case that lead to the Kelly rule for the admissibility of new, novel 
and experimental techniques.  Several admissibility hearing for fingerprint 
evidence have determined that fingerprint evidence is not new or novel and 
a Kelly hearing was denied.

People v. Kent (New York, 1968)
Perhaps the first trial that a defense expert testified that although the 
identification had 12 (some articles say 14) points of similarity, the prints 
were not identical.  Richard Stanley Kent was charged with murdering Joseph 
Murphy, a retired New York City Policeman.  The key evidence against Kent, a 
latent print on a bed board, seemed to be irrefutable.  William J. Ciolko, 
Dutchess County Public Defender, hired Dr. Vassilis C. Morfopoulos, director 
of the American Standards Testing Bureau, to look at the identification.  
Dr. Morfopoulos analyzed the identification using a 25x microscope.  He 
testified that he found 3 differences, "One distinct and crucial difference 
destroys the validity of an identification", he said.  Richard Kent was found 
not guilty of the murder.  In 1970, the FBI and the IAI refuted Dr. 
Morfopoulos's analysis and sided with Wilfred Holick, the original examiner 
in this case.  The defense attorney and the defense expert gave a presentation 
of this case at the 55th IAI Conference.  
There were two significant points to this case.  This was the first time 'the 
prints are not identical' was used in court as a defense strategy, and the 
defense claimed that this case broke down the apparent ironclad status of 
fingerprints.

People v. Les (Michigan, 1934)
In People v. Les, (255 NW 407) the defendant's palm print was recovered from 
the windowsill at the point of entry of a breaking and entering scene. Before 
trial, the defendant contended that palm prints were not sufficient to sustain 
a conviction. The court ruled that the evidence was insufficient to hold the 
defendant for trial, quashed the information, and ordered the discharge of the 
defendant. The Government appealed that the trial court was in error in their 
ruling regarding the palm print evidence, and the Supreme Court of Michigan 
(1934) agreed that fingerprints and palm prints are both "considered physical 
characteristics" and therefore were "sufficient evidence to go to trial." The 
trial judge was directed to reinstate the information.
http://www.clpex.com/Articles/TheDetail/TheDetail82.htm 10-20-2004

People v. Cory Safford (Illinois, 2009)
This case was reversed and remanded by the Illinois Appellate Court in part due 
to the defenses inability to effectively cross examine the fingerprint witness, 
Brent Cutro. Examiner Cutro testified to his conclusion but not to the specific 
supporting foundation for his opinion. The opinion noted, “Our concern over the 
claimed error here is not a matter of documentation; our concern is whether 
admitting expert testimony without a showing of the requisite foundation so 
curtails the admissibility of the defendants to challenge the conclusion drawn by 
the expert that it leads to a suggestion of infallibility”.  “We can think of no 
reason Examiner Cutro could not explain the Level One, Level Two, and Level Three 
details he must have observed on each occasion, which led him to conclude that 
the two prints matched”.  “It was insufficient for Examiner Cutro to rely on his 
training and experience as a basis for his ultimate opinion that no one other than 
the defendant could have left that latent print…”.  “More than sufficient notice 
was provided to the State to correct any deficiency in Examiner Cutro’s proposed 
testimony”.  “Absent an explanation that established the legal foundation for the 
introduction of Examiner Cutro’s ultimate opinion, the admission of his opinion was 
error”.

Perceptual Set 
A tendency to see what we expect to see.
http://psy1.clarion.edu/mm/General/GlossaryA.html#Perception 02-27-03

A non-intentional mental predisposition that influences how we perceive 
visual and non-visual information.  When a person is given only partial data 
their brain fills in what it expects the missing information to be.

Perez, Gerald
On Feb 07, 2008 Gerald Perez was arrested on drug charges using the name 
Edgardo Tirado.  While officials were taking his fingerprints they realized 
he altered his fingerprints in an attempt to conceal his identity but Perez 
claimed he had been in a fight when his fingers were cut.  His true identity 
was revealed when someone recognized him as Gerald Perez, which was 
later confirmed.  Perez had his fingers cut lengthwise and then stitched 
back together.  Some believe this surgery took place in the Dominican 
Republic in order to conceal his criminal record and avoid possible 
deportation.  

Performance Check
An experiment to assess the ability of a technique to perform as desired.

See Validation Study.

Periderm
A superficial layer of cells that covers the developing epidermis.  
Periderm is replaced by stratum corneum. 

Persistent
Having lasting qualities; remaining the same; nonchanging.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Petroleum Ether
Solvent used as a carrier in reagents; also as a rinse or cleaning agent.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Phalange (Phalanx)
Any bone in the fingers or toes.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Any bone in a finger or toe is referred to as a phalanx (or phalange).  The fingers 
each having 3; the distal phalanx, the medial or middle phalanx, and the proximal 
phalanx.  The thumb has two; the distal phalanx and the proximal phalanx.  Phalanx is 
more frequently used for the singular form of the word and phalanges is more frequently 
used for the plural form of the word, but phalange or phalanxes can be substituted.

Some people refer to the segments of the fingers as the proximal phalange, the medial 
phalange, and the distal phalange since there is a connection between the bones and the 
finger segments.  This connection is closer in medial and distal segments of the fingers 
than in the proximal segment.  The proximal phalange bone incorporates a finger segment 
as well as part of the interdigital area.

1. A bone of the finger or toe. 
2. Sometimes used to refer to a segment of a finger.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Phalangeal
Of the bones in the fingers and toes.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Philosophy
The principles of a particular subject or field.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Investigation of the nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, 
or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=philosophy

Philosophy of Friction Ridge Identification
Friction ridge identification is established through the agreement of friction 
ridge formations, in sequence, having sufficient uniqueness to individualize.  
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Phloxine B
Phloxine B is a protein stain which develops a reddish-orange colored print. 
Phloxine B is particularly good when used to develop latents on dark-colored 
or multicolored backgrounds.
http://www.evidentcrimescene.com/cata/chem/chem.html 10-06-2004

Phosphorescence
The emission of light caused by the absorption of radiant energy from an external 
source or stimulus.  The emission of light continues after the stimulus has stopped 
(as opposed to fluorescence). 

Photo-Flo ™
Surfactant developed by Kodak, used in powder suspension techniques for 
the development of friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Phylogenic (Phylogenetic)
The evolutionary development and history of a species or higher taxonomic 
grouping of organisms. Also called phylogenesis. 
The evolutionary development of an organ or other part of an organism.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=phylogenic 03-08-2003 

Inez Whipple wrote about the phylogenic theory of fingerprint development.  
She suggested that early mammals were completely covered with hair, but 
there was an evolutionary change on the palm and soles due to surface use.

Physical Developer
A chemical processing technique created in the early 1970’s by Atomic Weapons Research 
Establishment (AWRE), per the FBI, to develop latent prints on porous items.  The 
physical developer technique produces a chemical reaction known as redox which creates 
silver. The silver then adheres to charged particles including lipids (fats and waxes) 
within fingerprint reside. PD is useful after the ninhydrin process. It should not be 
used in conjunction with the silver nitrate process because these two processes compete 
against each other.  

PiAnoS © 2009
Freeware developed by the University of Lausanne.  An acronym for “Picture 
Annotation System”.

Pincushion Method
Also known as the Constellation Method.  An obsolete method used in the first 
half of the 20th century to confirm an identification. In this method 
enlargements of the latent and known prints are used.  Pins are pushed through 
the enlargement at each ridge characteristic.  The holes on the reverse side 
are joined together and the designs are compared.  This method is published in 
the April 1956 Fingerprint and Identification Magazine.  

Pitts, Robert J. (Known as Roscoe Pitts)
A career criminal noted for altering his fingerprints in 1941.  He had a 
doctor remove the skin from his first joints and replace it with skin 
from his chest.

Plantar Area
The friction ridge skin area on the side and underside of the foot.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Concerning the sole of the foot.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Plastic Print
A fingerprint image left in a soft pliable surface, such as clay or wax.  
Also referred to as a molded print or an impressed print.

Plaza Court Decision
See United States vs. Plaza.

Podoscopy
A term coined by Wentworth and Wilder as a possible word, if ever needed, 
referring to the study of the soles.

Points/ Points of Identification
(Fingerprints) Ridge characteristics.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

See Characteristics.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Another opinion:
The term 'points' was initially referring to Galton points.  As it was 
recognized that more than just Galton points were used to make an 
identification, the term became synonymous with 'characteristics'.

See Dactyloscopic Points.

Point Standards
In 1973, The IAI Standardization Committee released the results of a three-year study.  
They recommended and adopted that “no valid basis exists at this time for requiring that 
a pre-determined minimum number of friction ridge characteristics must be present in two 
impressions in order to establish positive identification.”  This was based on the fact 
that each print has a unique set of circumstances. 
http://www.latent-prints.com/iai_standardization_committee.htm 03-21-2003 

In 1995, the Ne'urim Declaration was adopted.  It stated, "No scientific basis exists 
for requiring that a pre-determined minimum number of friction ridge features must be 
present in two impressions in order to establish a positive identification."  This was 
a slight change from the 1973 IAI Resolution on the minimum number of characteristics 
needed to make an identification.

On June 11, 2001, after a 4 year study, the ACPO Fingerprint Evidence Project Board 
abolished the use of the 16 point standard used in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

Administrative point standards are a simplistic way achieve consistent results, however 
they may oversimplify the process and produce erroneous conclusions.

Aka Minimum Number of Characteristics.

Pollak, Louis Federal Judge
See United States vs. Plaza.

Polydactyly
A hand or foot having more than the normal number of fingers or toes.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Synonymous with hyperdactyly.

Polyethylene Lifting Tape (Poly Tape)
Specialized lifting tape made for use on curved objects.  This tape is thicker 
than normal tape and stretches to prevent tape creases from damaging the lift.  
Poly tape can also works well on textured objects.

Polylight
A forensic light source used to visualize items unseen under normal lighting 
conditions. 

Polymerization
Chaining together many simple molecules to form a more complex molecule 
with different physical properties.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Polymerization is a chemical reaction where small molecules (monomers) 
are bound together to form a larger chainlike molecules (polymers).

Popper, Karl (1902-1994)
One of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century.  Credited 
as establishing the 'falsifiable' element of science that can be used as a 
criterion under Daubert to establish whether something is scientific knowledge. 

Pores
Small openings on friction ridges through which body fluids are released.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

A minute opening in tissue, as in the skin of an animal, serving as an 
outlet for perspiration, or in a plant leaf or stem, serving as a means 
of absorption and transpiration. 
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=pore 06-11-2003

Poroscopy
The study of the pores. Poroscopy was established by Dr. Edmond Locard of Lyon, 
France in 1912.

A study of the size, shape, and arrangement of pores.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Porous
Absorbent.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Positive Print
A positive print is when the ridges of an image are a different color from the 
background and the furrows of an image are the same color as the background, as 
opposed to a negative image.

Potassium Thiocyanate
A chemical processing technique used to visualize friction ridge impressions.  
Potassium Thiocyanate works particularly well with impressions that are left in 
iron-rich dust or soil.

Prehensile
The ability to hold or grasp.

Pressure Distortion
Lateral pressure during deposition of a fingerprint.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Pressure distortion may be described as deposition pressure (downward pressure on 
the object), directional pressure (vertical, horizontal, or twisting), or a combination 
of deposition and directional pressure.

Prickle-cell Layer of Epidermis
See Stratum Spinosum.

Primary
A numerical formula derived from the presence of any whorl pattern as 
they appear on the fingers.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Primary Image 
The first recording of an image onto media.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

See Original Image.

Primary Ridges
Ridges on the bottom of the epidermis under the surface friction ridges; 
the root system of the surface ridges.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The term 'primary ridge' can be used to describe many different areas 
in the skin.  It is not important to discern whether one is right or 
wrong, just to understand the area that is being referred to.  How 
this term is used will also effect how the terms 'papillary ridges' 
and 'secondary ridges' are used.
1) Hale:  The ridges at the bottom of the epidermis that correspond to 
the surface ridges.
2) All ridges at the dermal-epidermal junction, in the respect that they 
appear first.  The surface ridges would be considered to be secondary 
ridges, appearing later.  It seems to be interpreted this way in the U.S. 
vs. Carlos Ivan Llera Plaza opinion dated 1/7/2002.
3) In "Bloom and Fawcett's Concise Histology" primary ridges and secondary 
ridges refer to the ridges of the dermis.

Principle
A rule or law concerning the functioning of natural phenomena or 
mechanical processes: the principle of jet propulsion.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=principle 03-08-2003 

See Theory.  See Laws.

Principle of Exchange
See Locard's Principle of Exchange.

Probability Based Fingerprint Evidence (PBFE)
The reporting of a fingerprint comparison using a mathematical model to assess the 
likelihood that the corresponding features have the same donor. Tools currently 
under development use minutia (ridge endings and bifurcations) and generate 
Likelihood Ratios.

Probative Value 
A legal term indication something is offered as evidence of proof of a supposition. 
Probative value is dependent on the circumstances of each case.

Process
A process is a task needing to be performed. The process alone does not describe the 
method(s) for completing the task.

Proficiency
The ongoing demonstration of competency.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Proliferate
To grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissue, parts, cells, 
or offspring.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=proliferation 03-10-2003 

2-Propanol
Solvent used in preparation of reagents.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Prosecutor's Fallacy
The subtle flip in logic results in a misinterpretation of the data.

See Transposing the Conditional.

Proximal
Situated at the closest point of attachment; direction toward the body.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Proximal Inter-Phalangeal Flexion Crease
The crease which separates the fingers from the palm.

Proximal Transverse Crease
The crease that separates the distal transverse crease and the 
radial longitudinal crease.

Nearest the central portion of the body or point of origin.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Pure Science
Uses the experimental method in order to formulate theoretical 
constructs, explicate natural laws, and expand knowledge.
Feibleman, J.K. 1972 Pure science, applied science and technology: 
An attempt at definitions. In C. Mitcham and R. Mackey (eds.). 
Philosophy and technology. New York: Free Press.

Purkinje, Jan (1787-1869) (AKA Purkinje, Johannes Evangelist or Purkyne)
A Bohemian (Czech Republic) Physiologist who made numerous contributions 
to the field of histology.  He devised new methods for preparing microscope 
samples, discovered sweat pores, introduced the term plasma and is most 
known for his discoveries about vision.  He was the first person to name 
the patterns on the fingers, but never mentioned using them for personal 
identification.  In 1823, Purkinje named 9 different patterns.



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