Kelly Rule (California, 1976)
See People v. Kelly.
Kelly v. State 824 S.W.2d (Texas, 1992)
The admissibility requirements for scientific evidence in Texas criminal courts.
Kelly recognized that reliability was more important than the Frye requirement
of general acceptance. Kelly has 3 factors; “(a) [that] the underlying scientific
technique [is] valid; (b) [that] the technique applying the theory [is] valid; and
(c) [that] the technique [has] been properly applied on the occasion in question."
From the court document THE STATE COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS OF TEXAS,
NO. 1919-02, THE STATE OF TEXAS, Appellant v. MATTHEW MEDRANO, Appellee 09-10-2008
See People v. Kent.
A cell which is found in our skin. It is the major constituent of
the epidermis. In their process of maturation keratinocytes die and
eventually become the horny protective layer of our skin.
Keratinocytes differentiate as they progress from the basal layer
to the skin surface. Keratinocytes are stratified, squamous, epithelial
cells which comprise skin and mucosa, including oral, esophageal, corneal,
conjunctival, and genital epithelia. Keratinocyte stem cells reside in the
basal layer. These cells have a low rate of mitosis and give rise to a
population of transient amplifying cells. The major proteins formed within
keratinocytes are keratins.
Group of highly insoluble fibrous proteins (of high a -helical content)
which are found as constituents of the outer layer of vertebrate skin and
of skin-related structures such as hair, wool, hoof and horn, claws, beaks
and feathers. Extracellular keratins are derived from cytokeratins, a
large and diverse group of intermediate filament proteins.
A numerical value derived from the ridge count of the first loop beginning
with the right thumb exclusive of the little fingers.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
Kingston, Charles R.
Charles Kingston did several statistical studies on the uniqueness of fingerprints.
In 1964, he finished his dissertation at the University of California Berkley titled,
"Probabilistic Analysis of Partial Fingerprint Patterns".
Kirk, Paul Leland (1902-1970)
Along with Vollmer, Kirk established criminology and criminalistics as an
academic discipline. In 1950 the University of California Berkeley began
offering criminal justice degrees. In 1953, Kirk authored "Crime Investigation",
one of the first crime scene investigation books to include not only practical
information, but also included theory. Kirk went on to work with C.R. Kingston
to analyze the statistical aspect of fingerprint identification.
Klaatsch, Dr. Hermann (1863-1916)
Dr. Hermann Klaatsch was a Professor of Anatomy and as well as an evolutionist.
He is sometimes referred to in fingerprint books for his early studies on friction
skin development. Dr. Klaatsch researched the volar pads association with the
epidermal patterns, grouping the volar pads of humans and primates together.
Subsequent to Kollmann, Klaatsch also gave names to the different volar pads (1888).
Known Print (Finger, Palm, Foot)
The prints of an individual, associated with a known or claimed identity, and deliberately
recorded electronically, by ink, or by another medium (also known as exemplars).
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0
Aka Exemplars or Standards.
Koehler, Jonathan Jay Ph. D.
Jonathan “Jay” Koehler has a PhD in Behavioral Sciences from the University of Chicago.
His areas of interest include behavioral decision theory, quantitative reasoning in the
courtroom, forensic science, and behavioral finance. Prior to joining Northwestern in
2010, he was a professor at Arizona State University (business and law schools), and a
University Distinguished Teaching Professor at University of Texas at Austin (business).
He was also a visiting scholar at Harvard (psychology) and Stanford (law).
Dr. Koehler is considered to be a minor critic of forensic sciences. His main criticisms
-Examiners should undergo mandatory testing by external agencies. This testing
should be done frequently, blind, and represent latents that mirror those found in
actual case work.
-Fingerprints haven't been able to satisfy the Daubert conditions but courts have
been reluctant to exclude fingerprint evidence so they offer some sort of unscientific
reasoning for admitting them. As an example, has a sufficient amount of testing been
done? Some judges have determined that 100 years worth of court use counts as testing.
-Experts describe by exaggeration (100% match, no possibility of error).
-Dr. Koehler admits that fingerprints are not junk science, it has probative value, but
how much? Dr. Koehler believes the probative value of a fingerprint that reportedly
matches a source should be based on two considerations: (1) the frequency with which
the match profile occurs in the relevant population, and (2) the rate at which false
match errors occur. He also believes that in the special cases where the false match
error rate is several orders of magnitude larger than the coincidental match rate
(which it probably is in fingerprinting), the false match error rate controls the
probative value of the evidence.
-"The assumption of discernible uniqueness that resides at the core of these fields is
weakened by evidence of errors in proficiency testing and actual cases."
-"...data from a well-known forensic testing program contradict industry boasts of
perfect, or even near-perfect, agreement (30). Since 1995, about one-fourth of examiners
failed to correctly identify all latent prints in this test (which includes 9 to 12
latent prints and palm prints). About 4 to 5% of examiners committed false-positive
errors on at least one latent."
-"Although lacking theoretical or empirical foundations, the assumption of discernible
uniqueness offers important practical benefits to the traditional forensic sciences. It
enables forensic sciences to draw bold, definitive conclusions that can make or break
cases. It excuses the forensic sciences from developing measures of object attributes,
collecting population data on the frequencies of variations in those attributes, testing
attribute independence, or calculating and explaining the probability that different
objects share a common set of observable attributes. Without the discernible uniqueness
assumption, far more scientific work would be needed, and criminalists would need to
offer more tempered opinions in court."
All items in quotes are from: Michael J. Saks and Jonathan J. Koehler, "The Coming
Paradigm Shift in Forensic Identification Science". Science, Vol 309, Issue 5736,
892-895 , 5 August 2005
Kolliker, Rudolph Albert Von (AKA Kolliker, Albert Von) (1817-1905)
Swiss anatomist and physiologist, wrote a prominent textbook on cell theory,
Handbuch der Gewebelehre (Manual of Histology), (1852). He added great
contributions to many aspects of science, namely histology. Alfred R. Hale
describes him as the first to study the embryogenesis of the skin (1848-1849).
Kollmann, Arthur (18??-1941)
In the late 1800's (1883, 1885), Kollmann of Hamburg Germany, was the first
researcher to address the formation of friction ridges on the fetus and the
random physical stresses and tensions which may have played a part in their growth.
Arthur Kollmann may have been the first researcher to study the development of
friction ridges. He not only grouped the volar pads of humans but also grouped
the volar pads of many primates. Dr. Wilder credits Kollmann with establishing
and naming ten volar pads in humans and the first to study epidermic markings in
different races. Alfred R. Hale describes him as the first researcher (1883)
to suggest that mechanical stresses inherent in growth may influence the ultimate
Rajyadhar Konai was one of the first people Herschel fingerprinted as a means of
identification. This is noted as the first practical uses of fingerprints. On
July 28,1858, Herschel obtained the entire hand impression of Rajyadhar Konai as a
signature on a contract.
Ben Kuhl was the defendant in what may have been the first palm print case to be
tried in the United States. He was accused of murdering the driver of a stagecoach
and this case has become known as "the story of the last horse drawn stage robbery
in the U.S.A.". It's also said to be "the first palm print ever to be testified to
in U.S. Courts". The murder happened in Dec. 1916, and the trial date is unknown.
Others have said the first palm print case may have been the Betts case of Ohio
(brought to trial in 1917).
See State of Nevada v. Kuhl 1918.
Author of the first textbook on fingerprints in the United States. “The Finger Print
Instructor” was published in 1916. While there were other books published on
fingerprints, Kuhne's was the first to be considered a textbook in the strict
sense of the word.
Kumho Tire Company v. Carmichael (1999)
This ruling extended Daubert to include all types of expert testimony. Including
technical and other specialized knowledge.