Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

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Kelly Rule (California, 1976) 
See People v. Kelly.

Kelly v. State 824 S.W.2d (Texas, 1992)
The admissibility requirements for scientific evidence in Texas criminal courts.  
Kelly recognized that reliability was more important than the Frye requirement 
of general acceptance. Kelly has 3 factors; “(a) [that] the underlying scientific 
technique [is] valid; (b) [that] the technique applying the theory [is] valid; and 
(c) [that] the technique [has] been properly applied on the occasion in question."
From the court document THE STATE COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS OF TEXAS, 
NO. 1919-02, THE STATE OF TEXAS, Appellant v. MATTHEW MEDRANO, Appellee 09-10-2008

Kent-Morfopoulos Case
See People v. Kent.

Keratinocyte
A cell which is found in our skin. It is the major constituent of 
the epidermis. In their process of maturation keratinocytes die and 
eventually become the horny protective layer of our skin.
http://skincancer.dermis.net/glossary/

Keratinocytes differentiate as they progress from the basal layer 
to the skin surface.  Keratinocytes are stratified, squamous, epithelial 
cells which comprise skin and mucosa, including oral, esophageal, corneal, 
conjunctival, and genital epithelia.  Keratinocyte stem cells reside in the 
basal layer. These cells have a low rate of mitosis and give rise to a 
population of transient amplifying cells.  The major proteins formed within 
keratinocytes are keratins.
http://www.aad.org/education/keratinocytes.htm 03-08-2003

Keratins
Group of highly insoluble fibrous proteins (of high a -helical content) 
which are found as constituents of the outer layer of vertebrate skin and 
of skin-related structures such as hair, wool, hoof and horn, claws, beaks 
and feathers. Extracellular keratins are derived from cytokeratins, a 
large and diverse group of intermediate filament proteins.
John Edwards 
http://www.mblab.gla.ac.uk/~julian/dict2.cgi?3456

Key 
A numerical value derived from the ridge count of the first loop beginning 
with the right thumb exclusive of the little fingers.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Kingston, Charles R.
Charles Kingston did several statistical studies on the uniqueness of fingerprints.  
In 1964, he finished his dissertation at the University of California Berkley titled, 
"Probabilistic Analysis of Partial Fingerprint Patterns".

Kirk, Paul Leland (1902-1970)
Along with Vollmer, Kirk established criminology and criminalistics as an 
academic discipline.  In 1950 the University of California Berkeley began 
offering criminal justice degrees. In 1953, Kirk authored "Crime Investigation", 
one of the first crime scene investigation books to include not only practical 
information, but also included theory.   Kirk went on to work with C.R. Kingston 
to analyze the statistical aspect of fingerprint identification.

Klaatsch, Dr. Hermann (1863-1916)
Dr. Hermann Klaatsch was a Professor of Anatomy and as well as an evolutionist.  
He is sometimes referred to in fingerprint books for his early studies on friction 
skin development.  Dr. Klaatsch researched the volar pads association with the 
epidermal patterns, grouping the volar pads of humans and primates together.  
Subsequent to Kollmann, Klaatsch also gave names to the different volar pads (1888).

Known Print (Finger, Palm, Foot)
The prints of an individual, associated with a known or claimed identity, and deliberately 
recorded electronically, by ink, or by another medium (also known as exemplars).
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Aka Exemplars or Standards.

Koehler, Jonathan Jay Ph. D.
Jonathan “Jay” Koehler has a PhD in Behavioral Sciences from the University of Chicago. 
His areas of interest include behavioral decision theory, quantitative reasoning in the 
courtroom, forensic science, and behavioral finance. Prior to joining Northwestern in 
2010, he was a professor at Arizona State University (business and law schools), and a 
University Distinguished Teaching Professor at University of Texas at Austin (business). 
He was also a visiting scholar at Harvard (psychology) and Stanford (law).

Dr. Koehler is considered to be a minor critic of forensic sciences.  His main criticisms 
are:

-Examiners should undergo mandatory testing by external agencies.  This testing 
should be done frequently, blind, and represent latents that mirror those found in 
actual case work. 

-Fingerprints haven't been able to satisfy the Daubert conditions but courts have 
been reluctant to exclude fingerprint evidence so they offer some sort of unscientific 
reasoning for admitting them.  As an example, has a sufficient amount of testing been 
done?  Some judges have determined that 100 years worth of court use counts as testing.

-Experts describe by exaggeration (100% match, no possibility of error). 

-Dr. Koehler admits that fingerprints are not junk science, it has probative value, but 
how much?   Dr. Koehler believes the probative value of a fingerprint that reportedly 
matches a source should be based on two considerations: (1) the frequency with which 
the match profile occurs in the relevant population, and (2) the rate at which false 
match errors occur.  He also believes that in the special cases where the false match 
error rate is several orders of magnitude larger than the coincidental match rate 
(which it probably is in fingerprinting), the false match error rate controls the 
probative value of the evidence.

-"The assumption of discernible uniqueness that resides at the core of these fields is 
weakened by evidence of errors in proficiency testing and actual cases."

-"...data from a well-known forensic testing program contradict industry boasts of 
perfect, or even near-perfect, agreement (30). Since 1995, about one-fourth of examiners 
failed to correctly identify all latent prints in this test (which includes 9 to 12 
latent prints and palm prints). About 4 to 5% of examiners committed false-positive 
errors on at least one latent."

-"Although lacking theoretical or empirical foundations, the assumption of discernible 
uniqueness offers important practical benefits to the traditional forensic sciences.  It 
enables forensic sciences to draw bold, definitive conclusions that can make or break 
cases.  It excuses the forensic sciences from developing measures of object attributes, 
collecting population data on the frequencies of variations in those attributes, testing 
attribute independence, or calculating and explaining the probability that different 
objects share a common set of observable attributes. Without the discernible uniqueness 
assumption, far more scientific work would be needed, and criminalists would need to 
offer more tempered opinions in court."

All items in quotes are from: Michael J. Saks and Jonathan J. Koehler, "The Coming 
Paradigm Shift in Forensic Identification Science". Science, Vol 309, Issue 5736, 
892-895 , 5 August 2005

Kolliker, Rudolph Albert Von (AKA Kolliker, Albert Von) (1817-1905)
Swiss anatomist and physiologist, wrote a prominent textbook on cell theory, 
Handbuch der Gewebelehre (Manual of Histology), (1852).  He added great 
contributions to many aspects of science, namely histology.  Alfred R. Hale 
describes him as the first to study the embryogenesis of the skin (1848-1849).

Kollmann, Arthur (18??-1941)
In the late 1800's (1883, 1885), Kollmann of Hamburg Germany, was the first 
researcher to address the formation of friction ridges on the fetus and the 
random physical stresses and tensions which may have played a part in their growth.
http://www.ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/scientific_researchers.html 03-08-2003

Arthur Kollmann may have been the first researcher to study the development of 
friction ridges.  He not only grouped the volar pads of humans but also grouped 
the volar pads of many primates.  Dr. Wilder credits Kollmann with establishing 
and naming ten volar pads in humans and the first to study epidermic markings in 
different races.  Alfred R. Hale describes him as the first researcher (1883) 
to suggest that mechanical stresses inherent in growth may influence the ultimate 
dermatoglyphic configuration.

Konai, Rajyadhar
Rajyadhar Konai was one of the first people Herschel fingerprinted as a means of 
identification.  This is noted as the first practical uses of fingerprints.  On 
July 28,1858, Herschel obtained the entire hand impression of Rajyadhar Konai as a 
signature on a contract.

Kuhl, Ben
Ben Kuhl was the defendant in what may have been the first palm print case to be 
tried in the United States.  He was accused of murdering the driver of a stagecoach 
and this case has become known as "the story of the last horse drawn stage robbery 
in the U.S.A.".  It's also said to be "the first palm print ever to be testified to 
in U.S. Courts".  The murder happened in Dec. 1916, and the trial date is unknown.  
Others have said the first palm print case may have been the Betts case of Ohio 
(brought to trial in 1917).

See State of Nevada v. Kuhl 1918.

Kuhne, Frederick
Author of the first textbook on fingerprints in the United States.  “The Finger Print 
Instructor” was published in 1916. While there were other books published on 
fingerprints, Kuhne's was the first to be considered a textbook in the strict 
sense of the word.

Kumho Tire Company v. Carmichael (1999)
This ruling extended Daubert to include all types of expert testimony.  Including 
technical and other specialized knowledge.




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