Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

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DAB
Diaminobenzidine.  Reagent used to detect / enhance bloody friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

A chemical technique used to develop friction ridge detail in blood through 
oxidation.  Can be used on both porous and nonporous items. Found to be very 
hazardous.

DFIQI
Defense Fingerprint Image Quality Index. A fingerprint statistical modeling tool developed 
by the USACIL pre-2015.

DFO
1,8-Diazafluoren-9-one.  The suffix ’-one’ (pronounced own) refers to the chemical make 
up, as in acetone or lactone.

Compound that reacts with amino acids to produce friction ridge detail with fluorescent 
properties when exposed to excitation wavelengths of 352-591 nm.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

A ninhydrin analog used to develop latent prints on porous items.  Optimal 
viewing is done with an alternate light source (352-591nm) and orange or red 
goggles. 
 
In 1989, C. A. Pounds, R. Griggs, and T. Monkolanssavaratana with the Department of 
Chemistry, Belfast, Northern Ireland (per the FBI) introduced the reagent 
1, 8-diazafluorenone (DFO), which is commercially available and used in the United 
Kingdom. Unlike ninhydrin, DFO gives a weakly colored initial print; the main feature 
of this reagent is its ability to give a fluorescent print without secondary treatment. 
However, some investigators currently report difficulties with uniform print development 
using DFO.
New Reagents for Development of Latent Fingerprints. NIJ 1995
http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles/finger.txt 06-19-2003

DMAC
See Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde.

DPR
Dermatopathia Pigmentosa Reticularis.  A genetic disorder passed down through the female 
side of the family.  DPR is caused by a gene that mutates during embryonic development 
resulting in a lack of ridge detail and sweat glands.  DPR is just one of several ectodermal 
dysplasia (ED) syndromes.

Dactiloscopy or Dactiloscopia or Dactiloscopico
The fingerprint classification system developed by Juan Vucetich and used in most areas of 
South America. Originally named the Icnofalangometric System and developed in 1891.

Dactylography
The study of fingerprints as a method of identification.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=dactylography 02-27-03

Also the title of Dr. Henry Faulds book published in 1905.

Dactyloscopic Point
A dactyloscopic point is a notable event that occurs in a regular flow of 
papillary ridges that is subject of analysis. The event is a natural/biological 
disturbance to the normal parallel system of the ridges ( e.g. a ridge stops or 
starts), and is significant.
http://www.interpol.int/Public/Forensic/fingerprints/WorkingParties/IEEGFI2/default.asp#4 

Dactyloscopy
Comparison of fingerprints for identification.
From the Hutchinson Encyclopaedia.
Helicon Publishing LTD 2000.
http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/dictionaries/difficultwords/data/d0004226.html 04-06-2003

Identification by comparison of fingerprints: also: classification 
of fingerprints.
Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. © 1997-2000.
http://www.fasthealth.com/dictionary/dactyloscopy.php 04-06-2003

Dalrymple, Brian E. (Sept. 23, 1947- present)
Mr. Dalrymple retired from the Ontario Provincial Police in 2000 and then became the president 
of the consulting company Dalrymple and Associates. Among his many accomplishments was the 
introduction of lasers (with colleagues Duff and Menzel) to detect inherent fluorescence in 
latent fingerprints. In addition to publishing many papers on the forensic identification process, 
in 2011 he co-authored the book "Crime and Measurement: Methods in Forensic Investigation". Mr. 
Dalrymple has received numerous awards and honors for his significant contributions to the science 
of forensic identification. These include the IAI’s Dondero Award in 1980, the Canadian 
Identification Society’s Foster Award in 1982 and the Fingerprint Society’s Minshall Award in 1984. 
He initiated and co-wrote (with John Norman, OPP) the first Body Examination Protocol for the 
Provincial Police, having completed approximately one hundred such examinations in his career. He 
also created and deployed the first image enhancement system in Canada in 1991 and was the first 
Canadian to tender evidence in court using this technology. He continues to share his knowledge as 
a contract instructor at the Ontario Police College in Canada and for Ron Smith & Associates.

Daoud, Ouhnane
See Mayfield, Brandon.

Daubert Court Cases (not a complete list)
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals (1993)
General Electric Company v. Joiner (1997)
Kumho Tire Company v. Carmichael (1999)
United States v. Byron Mitchell (1999)
United States v. Plaza (2002)
Commonwealth v. Terry L. Patterson (2005)

Daubert vs. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals 1993 
The Federal Court decision on the admissibility of scientific evidence and testimony in 
a court of law.  The Daubert decision stated on page 597, “….the Rules of Evidence—
especially Rule 702—do assign to the trial judge the task of ensuring that an expert’s 
testimony both rests on a reliable foundation and is relevant to the task at hand.”  

From page 592, “Faced with a proffer of expert scientific testimony, then, the trial 
judge must determine at the outset, pursuant to Rule 104(a), whether the expert is 
proposing to testify to (1) scientific knowledge that (2) will assist the trier of fact to 
understand or determine a fact in issue.  This entails a preliminary assessment of 
whether the reasoning or methodology underlying the testimony is scientifically 
valid and of whether that reasoning or methodology properly can be applied to 
the facts in issue.”

“Many factors will bear on the inquiry, and we do not presume to set out a definitive 
checklist or test. But some general observations are appropriate.”  The observations 
they mentioned included, “whether the theory or technique in question can be 
(and has been) tested, whether it has been subjected to peer review and publication, 
its known or potential error rate and the existence and maintenance of standards 
controlling its operation, and whether it has attracted widespread acceptance within 
a relevant scientific community.”  The acronym GTKPR, which stands for Gatekeeper, 
was created by Glenn Langenburg in 2001 to help remember these factors.  The 
theories or technique should have:

(G)eneral Acceptance
(T)ested (has been)
(K)nown Standards
(P)eer Review and Publication
(R)ate of Error (known or potential)

Daubert is considered by some to be a lower criteria than Frye designed to let new 
scientific evidence into court prior to it being generally accepted.  Daubert stated, 
“General acceptance is not a necessary precondition to the admissibility of scientific 
evidence under the Federal Rules of Evidence…”.

In the Daubert case, Merrell Dow was sued by a mother whose baby had a congenital 
disorder. That mother had taken Bendectin, an anti-nausea drug made by Merrell Dow, 
during her pregnancy. Merrell Dow moved for summary judgment, claiming Bendectin 
had not caused the child's disorder. In the affidavit authored by Dr. Steven H. Lamm, 
the author testified that he had reviewed multiple published human studies and 
concluded the use of Bendectin during the first trimester of pregnancy was not 
supposed to be a health risk. In response to Merrell Dow's affidavit, the plaintiff 
presented eight affidavits solely based on animal testings, claiming the existence of a 
link between Bendectin and animal birth defects.

The court granted summary judgment for Merrell Dow and dismissed the case, finding 
Daubert's experts relied on evidence "not sufficiently established to have general 
acceptance in the field to which it belongs." The Court held that expert opinion which 
is not based on data from the field of epidemiology concerning Bendectin is not 
admissible to raise an issue regarding causation (in law) to the jury. In addition, the Court 
also ruled that although Daubert's experts recalculated data obtained from previously 
published epidemiologic studies, their findings were not considered admissible because 
they were neither published nor subjected to peer review. The plaintiffs appealed the 
decision, and, in due course, the case reached the U. S. Supreme Court
The Supreme Court did not apply their new Daubert standard to the case, but rather 
reversed the decision and remanded the case to the Ninth Circuit court. On remand, the 
Ninth Circuit applied the Daubert standard and again granted summary judgment for the 
defendant.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daubert_Standard 05-27-2006

See R. v. Mohan (1994) for the Canadian equivalent to this decision.

Daubert Trilogy
The 3 main Daubert cases that set the requirements for admissibility of expert testimony.
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals (1993)
General Electric Company v. Joiner (1997)
Kumho Tire Company v. Carmichael (1999)

Deductive reasoning
Reasoning from the general to the particular  
WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=deductive%20reasoning 02-27-03

DeForest, Henry Pelouse (AKA DeForrest) (1864-1948)
Pioneered the first systematic use of fingerprints in the United States by 
the New York Civil Service Commission.
http://www.forensicdna.com/Timeline020702.pdf 03-08-2003

Henry DeForest was the Chief Medical Examiner for New York City.   In 1902, 
he was asked to recommend a method of identification.  This was intended as 
a means of stopping potential employees from hiring others to take the civil 
service exams for them.  The first person was fingerprinted on Dec. 19, 1902.  
His recommendation of using fingerprints was the first use of fingerprints by 
a United States government agency and considered the second use of fingerprints 
in the United States (after Gilbert Thompson).  DeForest also invented the 
dactyloscope, http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/RMM03214.html.

Degloving
The unintentional separation of the skin from the hands or feet, usually as a whole 
which resembles a glove.  This can be the result of a deceased’s body prolonged 
immersion in water, however such loss of skin may also occur in severe forms of 
epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited mechano-bullous disorders. 
Professor Julian Verbov 2011

Delta
Classification term for triradius.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

A term introduced by Galton to indicate the small area where 3 folds meet.
Personal Identification, Wentworth and Wilder 1918 pg. 117.

The point on a friction ridge at or nearest to the point of divergence of two type 
lines, and located at or directly in front of the point of divergence. Also known 
as a tri-radius.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Deposition Pressure
The amount of downward pressure during the deposition of a print.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Dermabrasion
A technique using chemicals, wire brush, surgery or lasers which can case either 
temporary or permanent loss of ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Dermal
Relative to the skin or dermis.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Dermal Papillae
Peg-like formations on the surface of the dermis.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Aka dermal pegs or papillary pegs. 

Dermal Papillae increases the surface area between the dermis and the epidermis, 
allowing for a stronger bond.  As a person ages the dermal papillae flattens, 
which creates less of a bond resulting in loose skin and creating wrinkles and 
creases.  The flattening of the dermal papillae also creates less of a difference 
in height between the ridges and the furrows.

Dermal Pegs
See Dermal Papillae.

Dermal Ridges.
The ridges in the papillary layer of the dermis that connect to the bottom 
ridges of the epidermis.  Also called papillary ridges.

Dermatoglyphics
Study of the surface markings of the skin; friction ridges.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Cummins and Midlo were professors of Microscopic Anatomy at Tulane 
University in the United States, and it was they who in fact coined the 
term 'dermatoglyphics' in 1926 (derma = skin, glyph = carving).
http://users.breathemail.net/chiro/chiro/dermatoglyphics.htm  04-26-03

Usually associated with the study of fingerprint patterns and their 
association with heredity, race, and medical conditions.

Dermatopathia Pigmentosa Reticularis (DPR)
A genetic disorder passed down through the female side of the family.  DPR is caused by a 
gene that mutates during embryonic development resulting in a lack of ridge detail and sweat 
glands.  DPR is just one of several ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes.

A rare genetic ectodermal dysplasia in which ridge dysplasia is seen.   Naegeli – 
Franceschetti – Jadassohn Syndrome and Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia are just 
two other ectodermal dysplasias where dermatoglyphic aberrations are seen.
Professor Julian Verbov 04-19-08

Dermis
The layer of skin beneath the epidermis.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

The layer of skin under the epidermis; the true skin.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The layer of skin beneath the epidermis consisting of two layers, the 
papillary layer and the reticular layer.  The dermis provides nutrients to 
the epidermis.

Desmosomes
Desmosomes are responsible for lateral cell-to-cell adhesion.  The cells in the 
epidermis are connected with desmosomes.  As the cells are pushed to the surface 
by newly forming cells they eventually break apart and are sloughed off.  
This is called desquamation.

Desquamation
The separation or shedding of the cuticle or epidermis in the form of flakes 
or scales; exfoliation, as of bones.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=desquamation

Details
Refers to Level 1 Details, Level 2 Details, and Level 3 Details.

Determination
To decide or settle authoritatively or conclusively.
Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary, Office Edition.  
Houghton Mifflin Publishing Co.  Copyright 1984, Berkley Addition.

The settling of a question or case by an authoritative decision or 
pronouncement, especially by a judicial body: The choice of a foster 
home was left to the determination of the court.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=determination

Develop
To promote a change in physical attributes, making an item more pronounced or 
prominent.  To enhance.
With regard to latent development, examiners change the physical attributes 
making the original latent more usable.  
With regard to fetal friction skin development (or formation), development may 
insinuate initial creation.

Development Medium
The substance used to develop friction ridge prints ,i.e., powder
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Deviation
1. A change in friction ridge path.
2. An alteration or departure from a documented policy or standard procedure.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Dichloromethane
Solvent used in the preparation of liquid Iodine reagent. See Methylene chloride.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Diff-Lift™
Specialized lifting tape made for use on textured objects.  This product was 
developed by, and is available through, the Lynn Peavey Company.

Difference of Opinion
The occurrence of differing opinions based on the use of different criteria for 
conclusions; the criteria used may include subjective aspects when ground truth 
cannot be established. A difference of opinion may be understandable when due to 
subjectivity, e.g. tolerance levels. A difference of opinion is considered a conflict 
when the opposing criteria is judged to be unreasonable.

Differential Growth 
Develops at random without plan.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

See Theory of Differential Growth.

Differentiation
Becoming different, i.e., the cells of an embryo differentiate into organs 
and parts as it grows; specific friction ridge patterns become unique.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The process by which cells or tissues undergo a change toward a more 
specialized form or function, especially during embryonic development.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=differentiation 03-08-2003

Digit
A toe or finger.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Dillinger, John (1903-1934)
Dillinger is noted for trying to elude law enforcement by mutilating his 
fingerprints.  He obliterated the cores and the deltas in all ten of his 
fingers.

Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde
Better known as DMAC. A chemical used to develop friction ridge detail 
on thermal paper.  This alternative to using DFO or ninhydrin does not 
turn thermal paper black. Refrigeration is needed to store the treated 
transfer sheets that are used in this procedure. The developed friction 
ridge detail has fluorescent properties when exposed to wavelengths of 
400-500 nm.

Discrepancy
See One Discrepancy Rule.

The presence of friction ridge detail in one impression that does not exist in the 
corresponding area of another impression (compare with dissimilarity).
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Dissimilar
The appearance of inconsistency between two friction ridge impressions 
that, based upon further analysis, could be attributed either to distortion 
or difference.

Dissimilarity
A difference in appearance between two friction ridge impressions (compare with 
discrepancy).
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Dissociated Ridges
A physical condition of friction ridges resulting in ridges that are fragmented or broken.

An area of ridge units that did not form into friction ridges.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

1. Disrupted, rather than continuous, friction ridges.
2. An area of friction ridge units that did not form into friction ridges, generally due to 
a genetic abnormality.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Distal
1. Farthest away from the center or point of attachment.
2. The direction away from the body.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Away from the center or point of origin.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Distal Inter-Phalangeal Flexion Crease
The top crease in a finger.

Distal Transverse Crease
The crease above the proximal transverse crease.  

Distortion
Variances in the 2-dimensional reproductions of the 3-dimensional friction skin source 
caused by multiple deposition factors such as pressure, movement, force, or the contact 
surface.

Variances in the reproduction of friction skin caused by factors such as pressure, 
movement, force, and contact surface.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Distortion Clues (not a complete list)
Fault line (shadowing where two impressions might meet)
Notch (uneven edges when 2 prints might meet)
Misaligned ridges
Disturbance in ridge flow 
Multiple vvv’s or multiple bifurcations (may be a sign of twisting)
Overlapping ridges or superimposed ridges (may be a sign of a double tap)
Thick ridges (sign of pressure)

Divergence
The separation of two friction ridges that have been running parallel or 
nearly parallel.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Dizygotic
Derived from two separately fertilized eggs.  Used to describe fraternal twins 
and distinguish them from identical twins (monozygotic).  

Doctrine
Belief, what is taught as a group's belief.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Documentation (amount needed)
Providing documentation is a way to demonstrate correct application of any 
process.  There are generally two forms of documentation.  Contemporaneous 
documentation is useful for physical task that cannot be recreated at a later date.  
Documentation of the justification behind a conclusion is useful for analytical 
tasks than can be recreated later.

Documentation stating the basis or justification for a conclusion is more 
desirable when a conclusion isn’t clearly apparent to other experts in the 
field (complex examinations), or when unusual occurrences are present.  
The amount of documentation depends on the complexity of the data and/or 
the situation.  Documentation of the analytical process is not required for 
every comparison but it is a scientific protocol to provide documentation if 
anyone should ask for it.

Dogma
Statements from an authoritative source that are accepted as being true without 
having proof.

Dondero, John A. (Nov. 11, 1900-Aug. 1957)
John A. Dondero was a pioneer in the science of investigation and identification.  
After graduating from college with a degree in Chemical Engineering, John Dondero 
became interested in this newly developing field.  During his life he created 
many valuable inventions that aided forensic practitioners.  In the early 1930's, 
after seeing his daughter's footprints taken at birth, he developed the first 
clean and inkless system for taking fingerprints.  He also developed the first 
fingerprint ink and the first commercially available fingerprint powder.  At the 
time most powders were prepared and ground by hand.  Around this time he 
established the Faurot Forensic Company, named after the famous New York Police 
Department detective.  This company is now owned by Sirchie Finger Print 
Laboratories.  One main historical event that Mr. Dondero was involved with was 
the famous 1944 Hartford Circus fire.  He was instrumental in identifying 168 
bodies from this tragedy.  After World War II, at the request of New York City 
and Nassau County Police, Mr. Dondero founded a school where he taught 
classification, latent print development, crime scene investigation and taking 
and comparing fingerprints.  The contributions John Dondero gave to the 
fingerprint community will forever be remembered.  In 1958, the IAI recognized 
these significant contributions by adopting the IAI John A. Dondero Memorial 
Award.  It is the highest honor an IAI member can receive. It is awarded for 
the most significant contribution in the area of identification and allied 
sciences during the calendar year immediately preceding each annual conference. 
Its first recipient was J. Edgar Hoover.  Only 18 people have received this 
award since inception.
The IAI 89th Annual Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, Aug. 27th, 2004, by Marilyn Picard.

Dorsal
The backside of the hand, the nonpalmar side.

Dot
An isolated friction ridge unit whose length approximates its width in size.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Double Blind Testing
Double Blind Testing is a valid scientific method of testing a hypothesis.  This 
method implements Blind Testing with the additional element of concealing 
the fact that the practitioner is part of a test (this information may also be 
concealed from the person administering the test).  The intent behind double 
blind testing is to eliminate that people may arrive at different conclusions 
when they know they are being tested.  Double Blind Testing tests the reliability 
of a conclusion (the reproducibility) but it does not test the validity of the 
conclusion (how the conclusion was arrived at), therefore Double Blind 
Testing is not considered a valid form of peer review. Restricting information 
may be beneficial in testing for bias but it may severely impact a conclusion 
if relevant information is being limited.

Double Blind Verification
A valid scientific method of testing the reliability (reproducibility) of a conclusion 
by giving the same information to others to independently analyze without being 
influence by knowing the conclusion of others and not knowing that they are 
involved in a test.  The intent behind double blind verification is to eliminate 
that people may arrive at different conclusions when they know they are being 
tested.

Double Impression
A double impression can refer to either overlapping prints (overlays) or double taps.

Double Tap
A subtle double impression where additional friction ridges will coincide or be close to running 
in the same direction as the existing ridge flow. Double taps are made in close time proximity to 
the first friction ridge impression. Double Taps are made by the same finger.
Charles Parker 09-06-2006

Dragon's Blood Powder
Dragon's Blood fingerprint powder is made from the resin of the rattan palm. 
The advantage of using this powder is that you can visualize latent prints on 
light, dark, and multi-colored surfaces. 

Dror, Dr. Itiel
Itiel Dror is a cognitive neuroscientist who got his Ph.D. from Harvard University 
in 1994. He specializes in visual cognition, human performance, expertise and 
decision making. Dr. Dror's interest and experience is in taking scientific 
knowledge about the human brain and mind, and translating them into practical 
ways to improve and affect human performance and decision making in the workplace. 
His practical experience is in cognitive aspects involved in fingerprint 
identification and his research has been funded by a variety of bodies, such as 
the FBI, NIST, and NIJ. The research and consultancy does not only focus on decision 
making and perceptual issues, but also pertains to selection and training of 
fingerprint experts, as well as the use and integration of technology.
 
Dr. Dror is affiliated with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at University 
College London (UCL), and researches and consults through Cognitive Consultants 
International (CCI). His applied research and consultancy has taken place in a 
variety of countries and has includedgovernmental bodies (such as the UK Passport 
and Identity Services; the US Air Force; and Police Forces in a variety of countries). 
Dr. Dror has published more than 75 peer reviewed articles, including a number of 
leading articles in the forensic science domain. He is an associate editor of the 
journal Pragmatics and Cognition, and is a member of the NIJ/NIST expert working 
group in human factors in latent fingerprint examination.

Dry-Benching
Reporting results from tests that were not actually done.  Also referred to as Dry-Labbing.

Dry-Labbing
Reporting results from tests that were not actually done.  Also referred to as Dry-Benching.

Duct
A tube or canal that delivers secretions or excretions.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Duplicate Lift
Taking subsequent lifts from the same area of the same surface with the intention of 
improving the quality and contrast of the latent print being lifted.

Dysplasia
A medical condition which occurs during the formation of friction ridges resulting in 
dissociated ridges.

Ridge units that did not form complete friction ridges due to a genetic cause.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Ridge units that did not form friction ridges due to a genetic cause.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press



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