Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

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CA or CAE
Cyanoacrylate Ester (superglue).  An adhesive used in a fuming method 
to develop friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

See Cyanoacrylate Ester.

CARDPACT
An acronym that stands for "Combined Advanced Ridgeology, Demystifying  
Palm Prints, and Comparison Techniques".  This was an advanced class taught 
by the most prominent experts in the latent print community; Pat Wertheim, 
David Ashbaugh, David Grieve, and Ron Smith.

CAS
Competency Assessment Services Ltd.

CFRE
See Complete Friction Ridge Exemplars.

CFSO
The Consortium of Forensic Science Organizations.  The consortium was formed in 2000 
and was composed of the IAI, the AAFS, ASCLD, NAME (the National Association of Medical 
Examiners), ASCLD-LAB, and FQS. FQS's was eventually replaced by the Society of Forensic 
Toxicologists - American Board of Forensic Toxicology.

CIS
Canadian Identification Society.

CJIS
Criminal Justice Information Services Division.  The CJIS Division was established 
in Feb. 1992 to serve as the focal point and central repository for criminal 
justice information services in the FBI.  It is the largest Division within the FBI.  
Programs that were initially consolidated under the CJIS Division include the 
National Crime Information Center (NCIC), Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR), and 
Fingerprint Identification.  In addition, responsibilities for several ongoing 
technological initiatives were also transferred to the CJIS Division, including the 
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), NCIC 2000, and the 
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).
http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cjisd/about.htm

C.R.
Crown to Rump.  This abbreviation is used to illustrate the length of a fetus during 
friction ridge development.

CRFP
Council for the Registration of Forensic Practitioners.  A United Kingdom organization 
that started in 2001 and closed March 31, 2009 due to financial issues.

CSI Effect
The effect on jurors of watching the forensic science shows offered on television.  
After watching these television shows, the ‘CSI effect’ claims that jurors expectations 
of what evidence should be produced at trial are now higher.  Jurors may now feel that 
if forensic evidence isn’t produced in a trial, the police and prosecutors didn’t do 
their jobs adequately.  Due to these shows, jurors also have unrealistic ideas of what 
scientific techniques are available and how likely it is to find forensic evidence.

CSS
Crime Scene Search.  A filter for an alternate light source.  This wavelength 
works well for an overall crime scene search to visualize different types of 
trace evidence.

CTS
Collaborative Testing Services.

CV
See Curriculum Vitae.   

Cadmium Chloride
A metal salt used to treat ninhydrin developed latent prints.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Calcar Area
Area located at the heel of the foot.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Wentworth and Wilder refer to the Calcar pattern as extremely rare.  It 
occurs on the heel of the foot usually in the form of a single loop opening 
inwards.

Caldwell, Harry H. (1872-1957)
An inspector for the Oakland Police Department who founded the IAI in 1915 
and was elected president of the organization for the first six years.  

Canadian Identification Society
An organization founded in 1978 with the goal as having a place where experts 
could discuss mutual problems and exchange scientific & technical information 
that would enhance identification work in Canada.
http://www.cis-sci.ca/HistoryCIS.asp

The charter members of the CIS were Lloyd Dunham, Christopher Tiller, Howard 
Hall, Clayton Bigras, Roger Remillard, Richard Jordon, Allen Wrenshall, Donald 
Braithwaite, Harold Tuthill, Donald Guttman, and Ronald Duck.  Honorary 
Members were Judge Rene J. Marin, Deputy Commissioner A.C. Potter and 
David C. Day Q.C.  The Canadian Identification Society publishes a quarterly 
journal called “Identification Canada”.

Carpal Delta Area
Area of the palm containing a delta formation nearest the wrist.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Carlsson, Kjell
Pronounced Shell Carlsson.
Kjell Carlsson was employed with the Swedish National Forensic Lab for 10 
years before working as a Forensic Scientist for the Stockholm Police Crime 
Laboratory, where he's been since 1975.  Additionally he founded a research 
and development company, Kjell Carlsson Innovation, aimed at improving forensic 
tools.  Among his most valuable inventions are Mikrosil, Wetwop, the Electrostatic 
Dust Lifter, the Electrostatic Vacuum Box, the Versa Light Box, and Snow Print Wax.

Catalyst
A substance, usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that 
modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the 
process.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.  
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. 
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=catalyst 03-08-2004

Cella, Cesare J.
See People v. Crispi.

Certainty
A measurement of ones state of mind with reference to truth.  An amount of confidence.

See Accuracy.

Certified
An endorsement by an influential organization stating you've met 
certain requirements and are officially recognized as being qualified 
in a particular field.

Chacko, L.W.
Wrote "The Dermal Papillae and Ridge Patterns in Human Volar Skin" in 1968 
with M.C.Vaidya.

Chamberlain, Paul
Paul Chamberlain is a forensic scientist and scientific advisor for fingerprints with 
the Forensic Science Service (FSS), a major UK provider of forensic services.  
Paul has over 22 years experience in fingerprint detection and comparison.  He 
started his career with the London Metropolitan Police before taking senior roles 
in two provincial police forces.  He joined the FSS in 2000 initially working on the 
expansion of fingerprint services.  He continues to undertake case work but is 
also involved in a number of projects.  In addition to being involved with the 
probabilistic approach to fingerprint comparisons these include proficiency 
trials and case interpretation strategies.  Paul is the Chair of the ENFSI 
(European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) European Fingerprint 
Working Group and leads on the production of their Fingerprint Best Practices 
Manual.

Champod, Dr. Christophe
Christophe Champod is Professor of forensic science at the school of criminal 
sciences / Institut de Police Scientifique, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.  
He has strong interest in statistical and inferential issues in identification 
evidence and has written articles on the frequency distribution of friction skin 
characteristics.  In 2004, Christophe Champod co-wrote "Fingerprints and Other 
Ridge Skin Impressions" with Chris Lennard, Pierre Margot and Milutin Stoilovic.  
He is also an invited member of the Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge 
Analysis, Study and Technology.

Characteristics
Distinctive aspects within friction ridges. Aka Features.

Distinctive details of the friction ridges, including Level 1, 2, and 3 details 
(also known as features).
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Characteristics, types of (not a complete list)
Ending ridge
Fork or bifurcation
Island
Dot
Bridge
Spur
Double bifurcation
Trifurcation
Short ridge
Warts

Charlton, David Ashley James (April 18, 1963-present)
Dave Charlton is an internationally recognized latent print expert from the United 
Kingdom.  He began his career in 1987 and has since been involved in many aspects 
of latent print work including promoting worldwide communication within our 
industry, developing and implementing updated practices and procedures, as well 
as research.

Dave Charlton is an active member in several professional organizations.  Since 2001, 
he has been the editor of Fingerprint Whorld, the educational and peer review 
journal of The Fingerprint Society and has been one of the principle organizers of 
several Fingerprint Society sponsored national conferences.  He’s a member of 
“the Third Level Detail Sub-Group”, formed by the Association of Chief Police Officers 
to investigate the potential use of third level detail within the identification process.  
He is also an active member of the IAI, and sits on the editorial review board and the 
latent print subcommittee.  He has authored several papers and given many 
presentations at educational conferences.  From 1995 to 1999, Dave Charlton was 
instrumental in the development and implementation of the United Kingdoms National 
Automated Fingerprint Identification System, known as NAFIS.  

Currently, Mr. Charlton is working for the Sussex Fingerprint Bureau.   He spends 
much of his time collaborating with others in researching the cognitive aspects and 
psychological influences on the latent print decision making process.  His most 
recent findings have been presented in the following publication, Dror, I.E., Peron, 
A. E., Hind, S.L., & Charlton, D. When emotions get the better of us: The effect of 
contextual top-down processing on matching fingerprints. Applied Cognitive 
Psychology, 2005.  

In April 2006, Dave Charlton resigned as Chair of the Fingerprint Society as well as 
from the committee.

Chatterjee, Sri Salil Kumar(1903 or 1904-Sept. 12, 1988)
Salil K. Chatterjee, of India, is recognized for developing edgeoscopy in 1962.  
He is also recognized as developing the only practical soleprint classification 
system.

Cheiloscopy
The study of lip prints.

Chemical Hazard
Chemical agent or condition that constitutes a hazard.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Chiridia
Hands and feet.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Chiridium
Hand or foot.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Chiroscopy
Examination of the hand (i.e. palms).

Circular Reasoning
Circular reasoning is the term for the error in logic of using the conclusion that you’re 
trying to prove as part of the proof itself.  Basically this is using the hypothesis as a 
proven principle to support itself.

Citric Acid
Chemical used in the preparation of Physical Developer and other friction 
ridge development reagents.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Clandestine
Kept or done in secret, often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=clandestine 09-17-2004

Clarity
Visual quality of a friction ridge impression.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Clearness, i.e., how well friction skin ridge detail is recorded in a print.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Class Characteristics
Characteristics used to put things into groups or classes, e.g., arches, 
loops, whorls.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Class characteristics are features that will be the same for every member of a group, 
i.e. all whorls have at least 2 delta formations, as opposed to individual characteristics.

Classical Probability
A finite number of outcomes.

See Empirical Probability and Subjective Probability.

Classification
The act of categorizing items into groups.  This could include labeling fingerprints as an 
arch, a loop, or a whorl; could include labeling parts of a palm print as interdigital, thenar, 
or hypothenar; or could be the process of using an alpha-numeric system to categorize prints.

Alpha numeric formula of finger and palmprint patterns used as a guide for filing and searching.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Classification Systems
The Henry Classification System - developed by Henry in the late 1800’s.
Icnofalangometric System – the original name of the system developed by Vucetich in 1891.
Dactiloscopy – the new name of the system developed by Vucetich.
The Oloriz System of Classification - developed by Oloriz.
Identakey – developed in the 1930’s by G. Tyler Mairs.
The American System of Fingerprint Classification - developed by Parke in 1903.
The Conley System.
The Flak-Conley System – developed in 1906 in New Jersey, an improved Conley System.
NCIC Fingerprint Classification System.
Collins System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in Scotland Yard in the early 1900’s.
Jorgensen System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in the early 1900’s.
Battley System - a classification system for single fingerprints used in the 1930’s.
Sharp – a classification system for palm prints used in South Africa from the 1930’s until 2000. Developed by Vaughan Sharp.
ZIMOX(YS) – a system used in South Africa to further sub-divide single fingerprint classifications.
Stockis – developed a palm print classification prior to 1931.
Wilder/Wentworth – developed a palm print classification prior to 1931.
Beletti – developed a palm print classification in 1934.
Lecha-Marzo – developed a palm print classification in 1934.
Pond – developed a palm print classification in 1936.

Clean Delta
A term popularized by Ron Smith to describe the delta in the interdigital 
area that is below the index finger.  The angles of this delta are usually 
evenly spaced.  This is referred to as the 'clean delta' because it is 
usually the clearest and most legible.

Clear Layer of Epidermis
See Stratum Lucidum.

Clerical Error
The failure to transcribe the intended information correctly on a document.

Cluster Prints
More than one print grouped together.  These may or may not have been deposited simultaneously.

See Simultaneous Impressions.

Cognition
The mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, 
and judgment.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=cognition 06-08-2005

Cognitive Bias
See Bias.

The effect of perceptual or mental processes on the reliability and validity of one’s 
observations and conclusions.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Cognitive Influences
Influences that direct decision-making.  The two cognitive influences are bottom-up and 
top-down influences.

Cognitive Researchers
Dr. Itiel Dror
David Charlton

Ralph Haber
Lyn Haber

Dr. Thomas A. Busey
John R. Vanderkolk

Dean Bertram
Jon S. Byrd

Cole, Dr. Simon A. (1967-present)
Dr. Simon A. Cole is an Assistant Professor in the School of Ecology at the University 
of California, Irvine, Department of Criminology, Law and Society.  Some people refer 
to Dr. Simon Cole as a fingerprint critic.  In 2001, Dr. Cole wrote the article, ‘The 
Myth of Fingerprints’ and the book, ‘Suspect Identities’.  Dr. Cole questions the 
accuracy of fingerprint identifications.

Collins Classification System
A classification system for single fingerprints used in Scotland Yard in the early 1900’s.

Colloidal Gold
A reagent that reacts with amino acids to develop friction ridge detail.  
Colloidal Gold produces a weak colored print and usually needs additional 
enhancement.  Colloidal Gold is the initial suspension in the multimetal 
deposition process.

Color Reversal
See Tonal Reversal. 

Colored Superglue
In 2006, Avery L. Smith, a 7th grader at Raney Intermediate Middle School in Corona, 
California did a science fair project to test different ways of coloring superglue for 
easier visualization.  She found that coloring the superglue with a pink highlighter 
prior to heating the superglue made the latent images glow under a black light.  In 
addition to the science fair project, she presented this information at the 2007 IAI 
Conference in San Diego, published it in “The Print” and in “Forensic Magazine”.

In 2006, Mountain State University received an NIJ grant that, under the guidance 
of David Weaver, will research dyed superglue for better visualization.

Commonwealth v. Terry L. Patterson
See State of Massachusetts v. Patterson.  ‘Commonwealth v. Terry L. Patterson’ is the 
official name of this court case.

Comparator
A split image projection screen used to view fingerprint images.  
Invented by William Russell-Turner.

Comparison
The act of comparing or finding likenesses or differences.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The second step of the ACE-V method. The observation of two or more impressions to determine 
the existence of discrepancies, dissimilarities, or similarities.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Competency
Possessing and demonstrating the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities to successfully 
perform a specific task.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Complete Friction Ridge Exemplars
The revised term for major case prints (proposed in 2006).  The name change was implemented to 
describe what was being recorded and eliminate misunderstandings associated with the term major 
case prints. 

A systematic recording of all friction ridge detail appearing on the palmar sides of the hands. 
This includes the extreme sides of the palms, joints, tips, and sides of the fingers (also 
known as major case prints).
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Complex Examinations
A comparison is complex if there are any difficult or unusual aspects.  Difficult aspects may 
include orientating the latent print, determining the area of the hand or foot a latent was 
deposited from, or difficulty in seeing and establishing the existence of features.  Unusual 
aspects may include distortion or dissimilarities.

Conclusion
A resulting inference stemming from examining and assessing the totality of objective data, removing 
and/or limiting as much human interpretation as possible.

See Opinion and Determination.

Determination made during the evaluation stage of ACE-V, including individualization, inconclusive, 
exclusion. 
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Conclusions of a Comparisons
An examination may produce the following results or inferences. Historically, conclusions have been 
reported in a variety of ways.

1) Positive result (Individualization): 
The features between the images are consistent and sufficient enough to indicate the two images were 
deposited by the same source. This conclusion has been reported as an individualization, identification 
or a match.
2) Negative result (Exclusion):
The features between the images have sufficient inconsistency to indicate the two images were not 
deposited by the same source. This conclusion has been reported as an exclusion, as negative or as no 
identification effected.
3) Incomplete result (Incomplete):
A comprehensive comparison cannot be completed due to the need for more data (clearer images of unknown 
impressions or additional known exemplars) or the need for additional time to complete a comparison. This 
conclusion has been reported as incomplete, inconclusive or no identification effected.
4) Inconclusive result with consistency (Inclusion):
The features between the images are consistent or generally consistent but lack sufficiency to indicate 
they were deposited from the same source. Some unexplainable inconsistency may exist. This conclusion has 
been reported as inclusion, inconclusive, consistent, match, no identification effected or no value for 
individualization.
5) Inconclusive result due to a failure to locate (Inconclusive):
The features in one image cannot be found in the other image although it is possible for the features to 
exist in both images. The reason is due to the sample being small and ambiguous, and an exhaustive examination 
cannot be performed. This conclusion has been reported as inconclusive, no identification effected or negative.

Conclusive
Serving to end doubt or uncertainty.
Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary, Office Edition.  
Houghton Mifflin Publishing Co.  Copyright 1984, Berkley Addition.

Expressing finality with no implication of possible change; "an absolute 
(or unequivocal) quarantee to respect the nation's authority"; "inability 
to make a conclusive (or unequivocal) refusal".
WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=conclusive 03-09-2003 

Confirmation Bias
See Bias.

A form of selective thinking that involves focusing on data that confirms preconceived 
expectations while ignoring data that doesn’t confirm ones beliefs.

To compensate for this natural human tendency the scientific method is constructed so that 
we must try to disprove our hypotheses.
http://www.fact-index.com/c/co/confirmation_bias.html 07-14-2004

The tendency to search for data or interpret information in a manner that supports one’s 
preconceptions.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Conflict
A difference of opinion where the opposing opinion is considered unreasonable.

A difference of determinations or conclusions that becomes apparent during, or at the end 
of, an examination.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Conflicting Conclusions
Failure of the verification process to result in confirmation of a prior conclusion 
constitutes a conflicting conclusion.  Three types of conflict can occur: 1) 
individualization versus exclusion, 2) individualization versus inconclusive or 3) 
exclusion versus inconclusive.
SWGFAST - Quality Assurance Guidelines for Latent Print Examiners, (9/28/06 ver 3.0)

Congenital
Of or relating to a condition that is present at birth, as a 
result of either heredity or environmental influences.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=congenital 06-11-03

The Conley Classification System
A fingerprint classification system.

Connective Ambiguity
A phrase first used by David Stoney to refer to minutia that cannot be specifically 
determined due to distortion (as with a bifurcation or a ridge ending).  Although a 
characteristic itself may be ambiguous, its existence can be determined by the features 
of the surrounding ridges.  Minutia with connective ambiguity will be given less weight 
than clearly visible minutia.

Constellation Method
See Pincushion Method.

Consultation
Consultation is discussion or advice with another expert on any aspect of a case.  The person 
consulted and the area of the consultation should be documented to avoid any potential conflict 
of interest should a subsequent independent examination be needed.

A significant interaction between examiners regarding one or more impressions in question.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Contemporaneous Documentation
The process of documenting the steps performed and when they were performed.  Contemporaneous 
documentation is valuable for physical tasks to determine if the correct steps were performed 
in an acceptable order.  Contemporaneous documentation is not necessarily valued for analytical 
tasks where the steps can be performed in a variety of ways and at any time and still be 
acceptable.

Contextual Bias
See Bias.

The effect of information or outside influences on the evaluation and interpretation of 
data.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Convergence
Two or more ridges running parallel and then moving towards each other.

Cooke, Donald
Donald Cooke was the son of T.G. Cooke.  He worked along side his father 
at the Institute of Applied Science and helped operate the IAS after his 
fathers death in 1952 until his own retirement in 1975.

Cooke, T. Dickerson (1911-1980)
T. Dickerson Cooke was the son of T.G. Cooke.  After graduating from college 
Cooke worked with his father at the Institute of Applied Science.  In 1952, 
he took over as director of the IAS and retired in 1975.  

Cooke, Thomas Grant (1885-1952)
T. G. Cooke was a civil engineer who founded a correspondence school for 
railway signal engineers.  In 1916, along with Captain William K. Evans, 
he established "Evan's University", later known as the Institute of Applied 
Science.  He served as director of the IAS until his death in 1952.  The 
IAS became instrumental in training experts in the identification field.

Coomassie Blue
Blue protein stain used to enhance bloody friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Core
The approximate center of a fingerprint pattern.
A specific formation within a fingerprint pattern, defined by classification 
systems such as Henry.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Corium
Dermis; often referred to as the true skin.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Correspond
To be in agreement, harmony, or conformity. To be similar or equivalent in 
character, quantity, origin, structure, or function
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=correspond 02-27-03

Crawford v Washington (2004)
See Supreme Court of the United States, Crawford v Washington (2004).

Crease
A line or linear depression; grooves at the joints of the phalanges, at the junction 
of the digits and across the palmar and plantar surfaces that accommodate flexion.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Two types of creases: Flexion creases disrupt the basal layer of the epidermis 
and have no ridge detail within the crease.   White lines (or tension creases) 
disrupt the stratum corneum or horny layer of the epidermis and do have ridge 
detail within the crease.  

See Bracelet Creases, Distal Transverse Crease, Metacarpo-Phalangeal Crease, 
Proximal Transverse Crease, Radial Longitudinal Crease, Occasional Features.

See Flexion Creases, Tension Creases and White Lines.

Crispi, Charles
See People v. Crispi.

Criteria of Sufficiency for Conclusions
When a quantifiable criteria cannot be established, the general scientific standard 
is to have enough evidence and justification to eliminate doubt in others.  Some people 
refer to this as general consensus conclusions or conclusions that will stand up to 
scrutiny or stand the test of time. General consensus conclusions are achieved by 
corroboration and not by a democratic vote.

Aka Standard of Sufficiency for Conclusions. 

Cross-Hatching
Cross-hatching is a term popularized by Ron Smith that describes the crease 
pattern in the thenar area of the palm.  These creases intersect other creases 
running in a perpendicular direction.

Crowle's Double Stain
Blue protein stain used to enhance bloody friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Crows Feet 
A term popularized by Ron Smith to describe the ulnar side of the distal 
transverse crease.  On the ulnar side of the palm, the distal transverse 
crease is a series of bifurcating creases resembling crow's feet.

Crystal Violet
See Gentian Violet.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Cummins, Prof.  Harold (1893-1976)
Doctor Cummins is universally acknowledged as the Father of Dermatoglyphics.  
Harold studied all aspects of fingerprint analysis, from anthropology to genetics, 
from embryology to the study of malformed hands with from two to seven fingers.(13) 
He pulled together the diverse work of his predecessors, added original research 
and set the standards of the field still in force to the present. His famous Down 
Syndrome(14) studies predicted a genetic link to the disease based upon the 
presence of the Simian Crease. 
http://www.handanalysis.net/library/derm_cummins.htm 2-27-03

Cummins is also known for inventing the term dermatoglyphics in 1926 and writing the 
book "Fingerprints, Palms and Soles" with Charles Midlo in 1943.

Curriculum Vitae
A summary of one's education, professional history, and job qualifications, 
as for a prospective employer.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=curriculum%20vitae 07-08-2003

Cuspal
When the ridges on a finger run vertically from the crease to the tip of the finger.  
Moenssens states that these patterns cannot be grouped into any of the Henry pattern 
types.  Cummins states that they should be grouped into the accidental whorl category.  
Others have stated that cuspal patterns should be classified as a tented arch.

Cyanoacrylate Ester
A fuming technique used to develop friction ridge detail on nonporous items, but 
does not interfere with the processing of porous items.  The cyanoacrylate ester 
polymerizes on the components of the latent residue creating a white impression.  
The value of using cyanoacrylate ester as a latent processing technique was first 
realized by Fuseo Matsumura in 1977, a trace evidence examiner with the Japanese 
National Police Agency.  Heating cyanoacrylate ester decreases the development time, 
but heating it above 400 degrees Fahrenheit generates hydrogen cyanide (Identification 
News, Sept. 1985, "A word of caution").  Humidity and vinegar are both known catalysts 
to this technique.

Also referred to as superglue, CA, or CAE.

See Colored Superglue and SuperGlue Girl.

Cyclohexane
Solvent used in the preparation of liquid Iodine reagent.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf



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Copyright © 2002-2014, Michele Triplett. All rights reserved.